Faculty & Staff

Faculty

William F. Ruddiman

Professor Emeritus · Ph.D., Columbia University, 1969.

Contact Information

I was initially trained as a marine geologist. My subsequent work over many years has explored several different aspects of the field of paleoclimate. My earliest research was on orbital-scale changes in North Atlantic sediments to reconstruct past sea-surface temperatures and to quantify the deposition of ice-rafted debris. I also studied the way that vertical mixing by sea-floor organisms smoothes deep-sea climatic records.

Later, my interests turned to the cause of long-term cooling over the last 50 million years. This research led to a new hypothesis that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau has been a major driver of that cooling. Soon after, a key link suggested by my student Maureen Raymo on chemical weathering became the central part of that hypothesis. That research also demonstrated that Tibetan uplift created much of the seasonally alternating monsoon climate (warm wet summers. cold dry winters) that dominates eastern Asia today. These ideas have now entered into the ‘mainstream’ understanding of past climate changes.

Since entering ’semi-retirement’ in 2001, my research has concentrated on the climatic role farmers played during the last several thousand years by clearing land, raising livestock, and irrigating rice paddies, all of which put increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This led to the ‘early anthropogenic hypothesis’ that early agriculture caused the observed (and anomalous) reversals in the natural declines of atmospheric CO2 (carbon dioxide) near 7000 years ago and CH4 (methane) near 5000 years ago. This hypothesis provoked a major debate, with some 50 papers published for or against it in the last decade, but with a favorable shift in the last few years based on emerging archeological evidence. My research on this issue has been NSF-funded for 7 years (and the next two), despite its controversial nature.

Awards:

2010 Lyell Medal, Geological Society of London
2012 Distinguished Career Award, American Quaternary Association
2013 Royal Scottish Geographical Society Coppock Research Medal

Ruddiman CV

Recent Publications

Books Written

Earth's Climate: Past and Future (1st, 2nd, 3rd editions). W.F. Ruddiman. W.H Freeman and Co., NY (2001, 2007, 20134).

Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (2005, 2010).

Earth Transformed. W.F. Ruddiman. W.H. Freeman and Co., NY (2013).

Volumes Edited

The early anthropogenic hypothesis. W.F. Ruddiman, M.C. Crucifix, and F.A. Oldfield. The Holocene 21 (2011).

Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change. W.F. Ruddiman,.Plenum Press, NY (1997)

Scientific Results, Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 151. J. Thiede, A. Myhre, J.V. Firth, G.L. Johnson, and W.F. Ruddiman, U. S. Government Printing Office, Wash. D.C. (1997).

Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. H.E. Wright, J.E. Kutzbach, T. Webb, W.F. Ruddiman, F.A. Street-Perrott, and P.J. Bartlein, University of Minnesota Press (1993).

Init. Reports ODP Vol. 108, Parts A, B. W.F. Ruddiman, M. Sarnthein, et al. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1987, 1989).

North America & Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation, W.F. Ruddiman, and H.E. Wright, Geol. Soc. Amer. DNAG Vol. K-3 (1987).

Init. Reports DSDP, Vol. 94, Parts I and II. W.F. Ruddiman, R.B. Kidd, E. Thomas, et al., U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1986).

ARTICLES PUBLISHED OR IN PRESS

139. Simulating global and local surface temperature changes due to Holocene anthropgenic land cover change. F. He, S.J. Vavrus, J. E. Kutzbach, W. F. Ruddiman, J. O. Kaplan, and K. M. Krumbach, (2014). Geophysical Res. Lett., 41: 1-7 doi:10.1002/2013GL058085.

138. The dependence of equilibrium climate sensitivity on climate state: Applications to studies of climates colder than present. J. E. Kutzbach, F. He, S. Vavrus, and W. F. Ruddiman. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 3721-3726. Doi: 10.1002/grl.50724 (2013).

137. The Anthropocene. W. F. Ruddiman. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41: 4.1-4.24. doi:: 101146/annrev-earth-050212-123944 (2013).

136. Bridging a disciplinary gap W. F. Ruddiman. In: Climates Landscapes and Civilizations, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 98, edited by L. Giosan, et al., pp. 1-10, AGU, Washington, D.C. (2012).

135. Nevle, R., Bird, D. K., Ruddiman, W. F., and Dull, R. A., Neotropical human-landscape interactions, fire, and atmospheric CO2 during European conquest. The Holocene 21: 853-864.doi: 10.1177/0959683611404578 (2011).

134. The role of GCM resolution in simulating glacial inception. S. Vavrus, G. Phillipon-Berthier, J. E. Kutzbach, and W. F. Ruddiman. The Holocene 21: 819-830. Doi:10.1177/0959683610394882 (2011).

133. Comparisons of atmosphere-ocean simulations of greenhouse gas-induced climate change for preindustrial and hypothetical ‘no-anthropogenic’ radiative forcing, relative to present day. J. E. Kutzbach, S. J. Vavrus, W. F. Ruddiman, G. Philippon-Berthier. The Holocene 21, 793-801. DOI: 10/1177/0959683611400200 (2011).

132. Can natural or anthropogenic explanations of late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 increases be falsified? W. F. Ruddiman, J. E. Kutzbach, and S. J. Vavrus. The Holocene 21, 865-879. DOI: 10.1177/0959683610387172 (2011).

131. Holocene carbon emissions as a result of anthropogenic land cover change. J. O. Kaplan, K. M. Krumhardt, E. C. Ellis, W. F. Ruddiman, C. Lemmen, K. K. Goldewijk. The Holocene, 21 DOI: 10.1177/095968361038983 (2010)

130. A Paleoclimatic Enigma? W.F. Ruddiman. Science 328, 838-839 (2010).

129. Role of Plant Physiology and dynamic vegetation feedbacks in the climate response to low GHG concentrations typical of late stages of previous interglacials. G. Phillippon-Berthier, S.J. Vavrus, J.E. Kutzbach, W.F. Ruddiman, Geophysical Research Letters 37, L08705, doi:10.1029/2010GL042905 (2010).

128. Afterword: A 2009 Update. W. F. Ruddiman, written for the new release of the 2005 book, Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum (2010).

127. Climate model simulations of anthropogenic influence on greenhouse-induced climate change (early agriculture to modern): the role of ocean feedbacks. J.E. Kutzbach, W.F. Ruddiman, S. Vavrus, G. Phillippon. Climatic Change 99: 351-381. DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9684-1.

126. Effect of per-capita land-use changes on Holocene forest cover and CO2 emissions. W.F. Ruddiman and E. Ellis. Quaternary Science Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.05.022 (2009).

125. Climate Changes at Geologic Time Scales: An overview. W. F. Ruddiman. The Geoscience of Climate and Energy. A. Miall ed. p. 42-44 (2009).

124. Climate model tests of the anthropogenic influence on greenhouse-induced climate change: the role of early human agriculture, industrialization, and vegetation feedbacks. S. Vavrus, W.F. Ruddiman, and J.E. Kutzbach, Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 1410-1425, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.04.011 (2008).

123. Early rice farming and methane emissions. W.F. Ruddiman, et al., Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 1291-1295 doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.03.007 (2008).

122. The challenge of modeling interglacial CO2 and CH4 trends. W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Science Reviews.27: 445-448 doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.11.007(2008).

121. The early anthropogenic hypothesis: Challenges and responses. W.F. Ruddiman. Reviews of Geophysics 45, RG4001, doi:10.1029/2006RG000207 (2007).

120. Pre-industrial depopulation episodes and climate change, W.F. Ruddiman, A. G. Carmichael, in Global Environmental Change and Human Health, edited by M.O. Andreae, U. Confalonieri, & A.J. McMichael, 2006., Pontifical Academy of Sciences, p. 158-194.

119. Have Humans altered global climate for thousands of years? W.F. Ruddiman, Geoscope, 37, 1-5 (2006).

118. Orbital changes and climate. W.F. Ruddiman, Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 3092-3112 (2006); doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.09.001.

117. Comment on "Broecker, W.S. and Stocker, T.L. The Holocene CO2 rise: Anthropogenic or natural?, W.F. Ruddiman, EOS, 87, 352-35 (2006).

116. Ice-Driven CO2 Feedback on Ice Volume. W.F. Ruddiman, Climate of the Past, 2, 1-13 (2006).

115. Viewpoint: What is the timing of orbital-scale monsoon changes? W.F. Ruddiman, Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 657-658 (2006).

114. Ice-Driven CO2 Feedback on Ice Volume. W.F. Ruddiman, Climate of the Past Discussion, 2, 43-78 (2006). [[1814-9359/cpd/2006-2-43]]

113. Comment on “A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation” by G. A. Schmidt et al. W.F. Ruddiman. Geophysical Research Letters 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL022599 (2005).

112. The early anthropogenic hypothesis a year later (and editorial reply). W.F. Ruddiman, Climatic Change 69, 427-434(2005).

111. How did humans first alter global climate? W.F. Ruddiman. Scientific American March, 46-53 (2005).

110. Cold climate during the closest stage 11 analog to recent millennia. W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 1111-1121 (2005).

109. Test of the ‘overdue glaciation’ hypothesis. W.F. Ruddiman, S.J. Vavrus, and J.E. Kutzbach. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, 1-10 (2005).

108. Early anthropogenic overprints on Holocene climate. W.F. Ruddiman, PAGES News 12, 18-19 (2004).

107. The Role of greenhouse gases in orbital-scale climatic changes. W.F. Ruddiman, EOS, 85, 1-7 (2004).

106. The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era began thousands of Years Ago. W.F. Ruddiman. Climatic Change 61, 261-293 (2003)

105. Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases. W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Science Reviews, 22, 1597-1629 (2003).

104. A Methane-based Time Scale for Vostok ice. W.F Ruddiman and M.E. Raymo. Quaternary Science Reviews, 22, 141-155 (2003).

103. Onset of Asian Desertification 22 Myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China. Z.T. Guo, W.F. Ruddiman, Q.Z. Hao, H.B. Wu, Y.S. Qiao, R.X. Zhu, S.Z. Peng, J.J. Wei,. Y. Yuan, and T.S. Liu, Nature 416, 159-163 (2002).

102. The Case for Human Causes of Increased Atmospheric CH4 over the Last 5000 years. W.F. Ruddiman and J.S. Thomson. Quat. Sci. Rev. 20: 1769-1777 (2001).

101. Introduction to the Uplift/Climate Connection. W.F. Ruddiman, and W.L. Prell. In:

Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, (W.F. Ruddiman, Ed.), Plenum, NY. pp. 3-15. (1997).

100. The Effects of Uplift on Ocean-Atmosphere Circulation, D. Rind, D. Russell, and W.F. Ruddiman. In: Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, (W.F. Ruddiman, Ed.) Plenum, NY. pp. 123-147 (1997).

99. Possible Effects of Cenozoic Uplift and CO2 Lowering on Global and Regional Hydrology.

J.E. Kutzbach, W.F. Ruddiman, and W.L. Prell, In: Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, (W.F. Ruddiman, Ed.), Plenum, NY. pp. 150-170 (1997).

98. Effects of Cenozoic Uplift and CO2 on Vegetation, W.F. Ruddiman, J.E. Kutzbach, and I.C. Prentice. In: Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, (W.F. Ruddiman, Ed.), Plenum, NY. pp. 203-235 (1997).

97. The Uplift-Climate Connection: A Synthesis, W.F. Ruddiman, M.E. Raymo, W.L. Prell, and

J.E. Kutzbach, In: Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, (W.F. Ruddiman, Ed.), Plenum,

NY. pp. 471-515 (1997).

96. Tropical Atlantic terrigenous fluxes since 25,000 yrs B.P. W.F. Ruddiman, Marine Geology 136: 189-207 (1997).

95. Late Pleistocene charcoal burial in tropical Atlantic Deep-Sea sediments. D. Verardo and W.F. Ruddiman, Geology, 24: 855-858 (1996).

94. Climatic effects of Late Neogene tectonism and volcanism. T.C. Partridge, G.C. Bond, C.J.H. Hartnady, P.B. deMenocal, and W.F. Ruddiman, in: Paleoclimate and Evolution with Emphasis on Human Origins, (E. Vrba, G.H. Denton, L.H. Burckle, & T.C. Partridge, eds.), Yale University press, New Haven Conn. pp. 8-23 (1995).

93. Neogene ice age in the North Atlantic region: climatic changes, biotic effects, and forcing factors. S.M. Stanley and W.F. Ruddiman, In: Effects of Past Global Change on Life, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., p. 118-133 (1994).

92. Reconstructing the Last Glacial and Deglacial Ice Sheets, W.F. Ruddiman, EOS 75: 82-84 (1994).

91. Use of paleoclimatic data as analogs for understanding future global changes: Group Report. T. Webb III, T.J. Crowley, B. Frenzel, A.-K. Gliemeroth, J. Jouzel, L. Labeyrie, I.C. Prentice, D. Rind, W.F. Ruddiman, M. Sarnthein, & A. Zwick, In: Global changes in the perspective of the past, J.A. Eddy & H. Oeschger (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, p. 51-71 (1993).

90. Model Description, External Forcing and Surface Boundary Conditions, J.E. Kutzbach and W.F. Ruddiman. In: Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H.E. Wright Jr., et al. (eds.), University of Minn. Press, p. 12-23 (1993).

89. The North and Equatorial Atlantic at 9000 and 6000 yr BP. W.F. Ruddiman and A. Mix. In: Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H.E. Wright Jr., et al. (eds.), University of Minn. Press, p. 94-124 (1993).

88. Climatic comparisons during the past 18,000 years: Regional syntheses, mechanisms and causes, T. Webb, III, W.F. Ruddiman, F.A. Street-Perrot, V. Markgraf, J.E. Kutzbach, P.J. Bartlein, H.E. Wright, Jr. and W.L. Prell, In: Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H.E. Wright Jr., et al. (eds.), University of Minn. Press p. 514-535 (1993).

87. Epilogue, J.E. Kutzbach, P.J. Bartlein, I.C. Prentice, W.F. Ruddiman, F.A. Street-Perrott, T. Webb, III, and H.E. Wright, Jr. In: Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H.E. Wright Jr., et al. (eds.), University of Minn. Press, p. 536-542 (1993).

86. Sensitivity of Eurasian climate to surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. J.E. Kutzbach, W.L. Prell, & W.F. Ruddiman, Journal of Geology 101: 177-190 (1993).

85. Influence of high- and low-latitude processes on African terrestrial climate: Pleistocene eolian records from Equatorial Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 663. P. B. de Menocal, W. F. Ruddiman, & E. M. Pokras, Paleoceanography 8: 209-242 (1993).

84. Tectonic forcing of Late Cenozoic climate. M. E. Raymo and W. F. Ruddiman, Nature 359: 117-122 (1992).

83. Notes on Long-Term Forcing of Arctic Climate. W. F. Ruddiman. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 167-168 (1991).

82. Plateau uplift and Climatic Change, W.F. Ruddiman and J.E Kutzbach, Scientific Amer. 264: 66-75 (1991).

81. Late Cenozoic Plateau Uplift and Climate Change. W.F. Ruddiman and J.E. Kutzbach, Trans. Royal Society Edinburgh 81:301-314 (1990).

80. Depth of post-depositional remanence acquistion in deep-sea sediments: a case study of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal and oxygen isotopic stage 19.1. P.B. deMenocal, W.F. Ruddiman and D.V. Kent. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 99: 1-13 (1990).

79. Changes in climate and biota on geologic time scales. W.F. Ruddiman. Ecology and Evolution, 5:285-288 (1990).

78. Evolution of global ice volume and Atlantic-Pacific d13C gradients over the past 2.5 m.y.

M.E. Raymo, W.F. Ruddiman, N.J. Shackleton, and D.W. Oppo. Earth and Planetary Science

Letters, 97:353-368 (1990).

77. Geochemistry of Pleistocene Ash Zones in Cores from the North Atlantic. T. Kvamme, J. Mangerud, H. Furnes and W.F. Ruddiman, Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 69:251-272 (1989).

76. Forcing of Late Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere Climate by Plateau Uplift in Southeast Asia and the American West. W.F. Ruddiman and J.E. Kutzbach. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94: 18,409-18,427 (1989).

75. Sensitivity of Climate to Late Cenozoic Uplift in Southern Asia and the American West: Numerical Experiments. J.E. Kutzbach, P.J. Guetter, W.F. Ruddiman, and W.L. Prell. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94: 18,393-18,407 (1989).

74. Late Cenozoic Uplift in Southern Asia and the American West: Rationale for General Circulation Modeling Experiments. W.F. Ruddiman, W.L. Prell, and M.E. Raymo. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94: 18,379-18,391 (1989).

73. Pliocene-Pleistocene biogenic and terrigenous fluxes at equatorial Atlantic Sites 662/663 and 664. W.F. Ruddiman and T. Janecek, Initial Reports ODP 108B, 211-240, (1989).

72. Evolution of African aridity based on freshwater diatoms and opal phytoliths: ODP Sites 662 and 664. E.M. Pokras, and W.F. Ruddiman, Initial Reports ODP 108B, 143-148 (1989).

71. Comparison of Late Pliocene and Late Pleistocene Sea-Surface Temperatures of the Equatorial Atlantic Divergence. K. Karlin, W.F. Ruddiman and A. McIntyre, Init. Reports ODP 108B, 187-210 (1989).

70. Late Miocene to Pleistocene evolution of climate in Africa and the low-latitude Atlantic: Overview of Leg 108 Results. W.F. Ruddiman, M. Sarnthein, et al., Init. Reports ODP 108B, 463-484 (1989).

69. Pleistocene Evolution: Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and North Atlantic Ocean Climate. W.F. Ruddiman, M.E. Raymo, D.G. Martinson, B.C. Clement and J. Backman, Paleoceanography, 4: 353-412 (1989).

68. Late Pliocene Variation in Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheets and North Atlantic Deep Water Circulation. M.E. Raymo, W.F. Ruddiman, J. Backman, B.M. Clement and D.G. Martinson, Paleoceanography, 4: 413-446 (1989).

67. Surface Water Response of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean to Orbital Forcing. A.McIntyre, W.F. Ruddiman, K. Karlin and A.C. Mix, Paleoceanography, 4: 19-56 (1989).

66. COHMAP Members, Climate changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations. Science, 241, p. 1043-1052, (1988).

65. Influence of Late Cenozoic mountain building on ocean geochemical cycles. M.E. Raymo, W.F. Ruddiman, and P. N. Froelich, Geology, v.16, p.649-653 (1988).

64. Northern Hemisphere Climate Regimes during the last 3 Ma: possible tectonic connections. W.F. Ruddiman, and M.E. Raymo, Royal Soc. London, Soc. B., 318: p.411-430 (1988).

63. Introduction, In: North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. W.F. Ruddiman, and H.E. Wright, Geol. Soc. Amer., DNAG Vol. K-3, p. 1-12 (1987).

62. Northern Oceans, In: North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. W.F. Ruddiman, Geol. Soc. Amer., DNAG Vol. K-3, p. 137-154 (1987).

61. Synthesis of Oceanic and Continental Records of the Last Deglaciation, In: North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. W.F. Ruddiman, Geol. Soc. Amer., DNAG Vol. K-3, p. 463-478 (1987).

60. The impact of cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures on climate: implications for the Younger Dryas cooling (11-10K). D. Rind, D. Peteet, W. Broecker, A. McIntyre, W.F. Ruddiman. Climate Dynamics, 1, p. 3-33 (1986).

59. Leg 94 Paleoenvironmental Synthesis. W.F. Ruddiman, J. Backman, J. Baldauf, P. Hooper, L. Keigwin, K. Miller, M. Raymo, and E. Thomas. Initial Reports DSDP Vol. 94, p. 1207-1215 (1986).

58. A Streamlined Foraminiferal Transfer Function for the Subpolar North Atlantic. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. Esmay. Initial Reports DSDP Vol. 94, p. 1045-1057 (1986).

57. Sediment Disturbance and Correlation of Offset Holes Drilled with the Hydraulic Piston Corer: Leg 94. W.F. Ruddiman, D. Cameron, B. Clement. Initial Reports DSDP Vol. 94, p. 615-634 (1986).

56. Paleoenvironmental Results from North Atlantic Sites 607 and 609. W.F. Ruddiman, A. McIntyre, and M.E. Raymo. Initial Reports DSDP Vol. 94, p. 855-878 (1986).

55. Pliocene-Pleistocene Paleoceanography of the North Atlantic at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 609. M.E. Raymo, W.F. Ruddiman, and B.M. Clement. Initial Reports DSDP Vol. 94, p. 895-901 (1986).

54. Matuyama 41,000-Year Cycles: North Atlantic Ocean and Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheets. W.F. Ruddiman, M. Raymo, and A. McIntyre. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 80, p. 117-129 (1986).

53. North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures for the last 1.1 million years. W.F. Ruddiman, N.J. Shackleton, and A. McIntyre. North Atlantic Palaeoceanography, Geological Society Special Publication No. 21, p. 155-173 (1986).

52. Late Quaternary Paleoceanography of the Tropical Atlantic, Part II: The seasonal Cycle of Sea Surface Temperatures, 0-20,000 Years B.P. A.C. Mix, W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Paleoceanography, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 339-353 (1986).

51. Late Quaternary Paleoceanography of the Tropical Atlantic, Part I: Spatial Variability of Annual Mean Sea-Surface Temperatures, 0-20,000 Yr. B.P. A.C. Mix, W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Paleoceanography, Vol. 1, p. 43-66 (1986).

50. Structure and Timing of the Last Deglaciation: Oxygen Isotope Evidence. A.C. Mix, and W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 4, p. 59-108 (1985).

49. Ice-Rafted Evidence of Long-Term North Atlantic Circulation. F.W. Smythe, Jr., W.F. Ruddiman, and D.N. Lumsden. Marine Geology, Vol. 64, p. 131-141 (1985).

48. Climate Studies in Ocean Cores. W.F. Ruddiman, In: Paleoclimatic Analysis and Modeling. A. Hecht, Ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 197-257 (1985).

47. Conference on the Last Deglaciation: Timing and Mechanism. W.F. Ruddiman, and J.-C. Duplessy. Quaternary Research, Vol. 23, p. 1-17 (1985).

46. Central Arctic Ocean Response to Pleistocene Earth Orbital Variations. R.F. Boyd, F. D.L. Clark, G. Jones, W.F. Ruddiman, A. McIntyre, and N.G. Pisias. Quaternary Research, Vol. 22, p. 121-128 (1984).

45. An Evaluation of Ocean-Climate Theories in the North Atlantic. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. In: Milankovitch and Climate, A.L. Berger et al., Editor. Part 2, p. 671-686 (1984).

44. Carbon-13 Record of Benthic Foraminifera in the Last Interglacial Ocean: Implications for the Carbon Cycle and the Global Deep Water Circulation. J.-C. Duplessy, N.J. Shackleton, R.K. Matthews, W.L. Prell, W.F. Ruddiman, M. Caralp, and C.H. Hendy. Quaternary Research, Vol. 21, p. 225-243 (1984).

43. Last Interglacial Ocean, CLIMAP Project Members, W.F. Ruddiman, Project Leader, R.M. Cline, Ed. Quaternary Research, Vol. 21, p. 123-224 (1984).

42. Ice-Age Thermal Response and Climatic Role of the Surface Atlantic Ocean 40°N to 63°N. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Geological Society of America, Vol. 95, p. 381-396 (1984).

41. Oxygen isotope analyses and Pleistocene Ice Volumes. A.C. Mix, and W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Research, Vol. 21, p. 1-20 (1984).

40. Severity and Speed of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation Pulses: The Limiting Case? W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 93, p. 1273-1279 (1982).

39. Mixing of Volcanic Ash Zones in Subpolar North Atlantic Sediments. W.F. Ruddiman, and L.K. Glover. In: The Ocean Floor. R.A. Scrutton, and M. Talwani, Eds. John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 37-60 (1982).

38. Assessing the Global Meltwater Spike. G.A. Jones, and W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Research, Vol. 17, p. 148-172 (1982).

37. Seasonal Reconstructions of the Earth's Surface at the Last Glacial Maximum, (Map and Chart Series 36, text, maps and microfiche). CLIMAP Project Members. Geological Society of America (1981).

36. The North Atlantic Ocean During the Last Deglaciation. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 35, p. 145-214 (1981).

35. The Mode and Mechanism of the Last Deglaciation: Oceanic Evidence. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Quaternary Research, Vol. 16, p. 125-134 (1981).

34. Oceanic Mechanisms for Amplification of the 23,000-Year Ice-Volume Cycle. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Science, Vol. 212, p. 617-627 (1981).

33. Tests for Size and Shape Dependency in Deep-Sea Mixing. W.F. Ruddiman, G.A. Jones, T.-H. Peng, L.K. Glover, B.P. Glass, and P.J. Liebertz. Sedimentary Geology, 25, p. 257-276, (1980).

32. Evidence Bearing on the Mechanism of Rapid Deglaciation. W.F. Ruddiman, B. Molfino, A. Esmay, and E. Pokras. Climate Change 3, p. 65-87, (1980).

31. Oceanic Evidence for the Mechanism of Rapid Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. W.F. Ruddiman, A. McIntyre, V. Niebler-Hunt, and J.T. Durazzi. Quaternary Research, Vol. 13, p. 33-64, (1980).

30. Warmth of the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean During Northern Hemisphere Ice-Sheet Growth. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Science, Vol. 204, p. 173-175, (1979).

29. The Role of the North Atlantic Ocean in Rapid Glacial Growth, In: "Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres and Climatology of the Earth". A. McIntyre, W.F. Ruddiman, and J.T. Durazzi. Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, p. 113-120, (1978).

28. Late Quaternary Deposition of Ice-Rafted Sand in the Subpolar North Atlantic (Lat. 40° to 65°N). W.F. Ruddiman. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 88, p. 1813-1827, (1977).

27. Late Quaternary Surface Ocean Kinematics and Climate Change in the High-Latitude North Atlantic. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 82, No. 27, p. 3877-3887, (1977).

26. North Atlantic Ice Rafting: A Major Change at 75,000 yr B.P. W.F. Ruddiman. Science, vol. 196, p. 1208-1211, (1977).

25. Glacial/Interglacial Response Rate of Subpolar North Atlantic Waters to Climatic Change: The Record in Oceanic Sediments. W.F. Ruddiman, C.D. Sancetta, and A. McIntyre. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London B, vol. 280, p. 119-142, (1977).

24. Paleoecologic and Paleoclimatic Investigations of the Quaternary. W.F. Ruddiman. In: Oceanic Micropaleontology, A.T.S. Ramsay, Ed. Academic Press, London, p. 101-161, (1977).

23. The Surface of the Ice-Age Earth. CLIMAP Project Mambers. Science, vol. 191, p. 1131-1144, (1976).

22. Glacial North Atlantic 18,000 Years Ago; A CLIMAP Reconstruction. A. McIntyre, and N.G. Kipp, with A.W.H. Be, T. Crowley, T. Kellogg, J.V. Gardner, W. Press, and W.F. Ruddiman. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, p. 43-76, (1976).

21. Early Interglacial Bottom Current Sedimentation on the Eastern Reykjanes Ridge. W.F. Ruddiman, and F.A. Bowles. Marine Geology, vol. 21, p. 191-210, (1976).

20. Geology and Geophysics of the Tagus Basin. W.F. Ruddiman, and L.K. Glover. U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Technical Note 6120-1-76, 37 pp., (1976).

19. Northeast Atlantic Paleoclimatic Changes over the Past 600,000 Years. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, p. 111-146, (1976).

18. Subpolar North Atlantic Circulation: 9300 yrs B.P. W.F. Ruddiman, and L.K. Glover. Quaternary Research, vol. 5, p. 361-389, (1975).

17. Quantitative Time-Space Pattern of Holocene Climatic Changes in and Around the North Atlantic Ocean. W.F. Ruddiman. American Quat. Association, Abstracts, 3rd Annual Meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, p. 10-13, (1974).

16. Atlantic Ocean: Islands and Deep-Sea Sediments. L.K. Glover, and W.F. Ruddiman. In: World Bibliography and Index of Quaternary Tephrochronology, J.A. Westgate, and C.M. Gold, Eds., Part I, p. 125-128, (1974).

15. Time-Transgressive Deglacial Retreat of Polar Waters from the North Atlantic. W.F. Ruddiman, and A. McIntyre. Quaternary Research, vol. 3, p. 117-130, (1973).

14. Northeast Atlantic Post-Eemian Paleo-oceanography: A Predictive Analog of the Future. A. McIntyre, and W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Research, vol. 2, p. 350-354, (1972).

13. Climatic Record in North Atlantic Deep-Sea Core (V23-82: Comparison of the Last and Present Interglacials Based on Quantitative Time Series. C. Sancetta, J. Imbrie, N.G. Kipp, A. McIntyre, and W.F. Ruddiman. Quaternary Research, vol. 2, p. 363-367, (1972).

12. Vertical Mixing of Ice-Rafted Volcanic Ash in North Atlantic Sediments. W.F. Ruddiman, and L.K. Glover. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 83, p. 2817-2836, (1972).

11. Sediment Redistribution on the Reykjanes Ridge: Seismic Evidence. W.F. Ruddiman. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 83, p. 2039-2062, (1972).

10. Maury Channel and Fan. W.F. Ruddiman, F.A. Bowles, and B. Molnia. 24th International Geological Congress, Section 8, p. 100-108, (1972).

9. Southward Penetrations of the North Atlantic Polar Front: Faunal and floral evidence of large-scale surface water mass movements over the last 225,000 years. A. McIntyre, W.F. Ruddiman, and R. Jantzen. Deep-Sea Research, vol. 19, p. 61-77, (1972).

8. Pleistocene Sedimentation in the Equatorial Atlantic: Stratigraphy and Faunal Paleoclimatology. W.F. Ruddiman. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 82, p. 283-302, (1971).

7. The Geology of the Caribbean Crust, I: Beata Ridge. P.J. Fox, W.F. Ruddiman, W.B.F. Ryan, and B.C. Heezen. Tectonophysics, vol. 10, p. 495-513, (1970).

6. Foraminiferal Evidence of a Modern Warming of the North Atlantic Ocean. W.F. Ruddiman, D.S. Tolderlund, and A.W.H. Be. Deep-Sea Research, vol. 17, p. 141-155, (1970).

5. Recent Planktonic Foraminifera: Dominance and Diversity in North Atlantic Surface Sediments. W.F. Ruddiman. Science, vol. 164, p. 1164-1167, (1969).

4. Planktonic foraminifera of the Subtropical North Atlantic Gyre. W.F. Ruddiman (Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University), (1969).

3. Historical Stability of the Gulf Stream Meander Belt: Foraminiferal Evidence. W.F. Ruddiman. Deep-Sea Research, vol. 15, p. 137-148, (1969).

2. Differential Solution of Planktonic Foraminifera. W.F. Ruddiman, and B.C. Heezen. Deep-Sea Research, vol. 14, p. 801-808, (1967).

1. Shaping of the continental Rise by Deep Geostrophic Contour Currents. B.C. Heezen, C.D. Hollister, and W.F. Ruddiman. Science, vol. 152, p. 502-508, (1966).